AutoFDO: Automatic Feedback-Directed Optimization for Warehouse-Scale Applications

AutoFDO is a system to simplify real-world deployment of
feedback-directed optimization (FDO). The system works by
sampling hardware performance monitors on production machines
and using those profiles to guide optimization. Profile
data is stale by design, and we have implemented compiler
features to deliver stable speedup across releases. The resulting
performance has a geometric mean improvement of 10.5
The system is deployed to hundreds of binaries at Google,
and it is extremely easy to enable; users need only to add
some flags to their release build. To date, AutoFDO has
increased the number of FDO users at Google by 8X and
has doubled the number of cycles spent in FDO-optimized
binaries. Over half of CPU cycles used are now spent in some
flavor of FDO-optimized binaries.



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