Sincronia: Near-Optimal Network Design for Coflows

We present Sincronia, a near-optimal network design for coflows that can be implemented on top on any transport layer (for flows) that supports priority scheduling. Sincronia achieves this using a key technical result — we show that given a “right” ordering of coflows, any per-flow rate allocation mechanism achieves average coflow completion time within 4X of the optimal as long as (co)flows are prioritized with respect to the ordering.

Sincronia uses a simple greedy mechanism to periodically order all unfinished coflows; each host sets priorities for its flows using corresponding coflow order and offloads the flow scheduling and rate allocation to the underlying priority-enabled transport layer. We evaluate Sincronia over a real testbed comprising 16-servers and commodity switches, and using simulations across a variety of workloads. Evaluation results suggest that Sincronia not only admits a practical, near-optimal design but also improves upon state-of-the-art network designs for coflows (sometimes by as much as 8X).

Source: http://delivery.acm.org/10.1145/3240000/3230569/p16-agarwal.pdf?ip=108.51.128.31&id=3230569&acc=OPEN&key=4D4702B0C3E38B35%2E4D4702B0C3E38B35%2E4D4702B0C3E38B35%2E6D218144511F3437&__acm__=1533991235_320a71237c29327489e1ed7bb1e12a6a

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Design patterns for container-based distributed systems

In the late 1980s and early 1990s, object-oriented pro-
gramming revolutionized software development, popu-
larizing the approach of building of applications as col-
lections of modular components. Today we are seeing
a similar revolution in distributed system development,
with the increasing popularity of microservice archi-
tectures built from containerized software components.
Containers [15] [22] [1] [2] are particularly well-suited
as the fundamental “object” in distributed systems by
virtue of the walls they erect at the container bound-
ary. As this architectural style matures, we are seeing the
emergence of design patterns, much as we did for object-
oriented programs, and for the same reason – thinking in
terms of objects (or containers) abstracts away the low-
level details of code, eventually revealing higher-level
patterns that are common to a variety of applications and
algorithms.
This paper describes three types of design patterns
that we have observed emerging in container-based dis-
tributed systems: single-container patterns for container
management, single-node patterns of closely cooperat-
ing containers, and multi-node patterns for distributed
algorithms. Like object-oriented patterns before them,
these patterns for distributed computation encode best
practices, simplify development, and make the systems
where they are used more reliable.

Source: https://static.googleusercontent.com/media/research.google.com/en//pubs/archive/45406.pdf

In-Datacenter Performance Analysis of a Tensor Processing Unit​ TM

Many architects believe that major improvements in cost-energy-performance must now come from domain-specific hardware. This paper evaluates a custom ASIC–called a Tensor Processing Unit (TPU)–deployed in datacenters since 2015 that accelerates the inference phase of neural networks (NN). The heart of the TPU is a 65,536 8-bit MAC matrix multiply unit that offers a peak throughput of 92 TeraOps/second (TOPS), and a large (28MiB) software-managed on-chip memory. The TPU’s deterministic execution model is a better match to the 99th-percentile response-time requirement of our NN applications than are the time-varying optimizations of CPUs and GPUs (caches, out-of-order execution, multithreading, multiprocessing, prefetching, …) that help average throughput more than guaranteed latency. The lack of of such features helps explain why, despite having myriad MACs and a big memory, the TPU is relatively small and low power. We compare the TPU to a server-class Intel Haswell CPU and an Nvidia K80 GPU, which are contemporaries deployed in the same datacenters. Our workload, written in the high-level TensorFlow framework, uses production NN applications (MLPs, CNNs, and LSTMs) that represent 95% of our datacenters’ NN inference demand. Despite low utilization for some applications, the TPU is on average about 15X – 30X faster than its contemporary GPU or CPU with TOPS/Watt about 30X – 80X higher. Moreover, using the GPUs GDDR5 memory in the TPU would triple achieved TOPS and raise TOPS/Watt to nearly 70X the GPU and 200X the CPU.

Source: https://drive.google.com/file/d/0Bx4hafXDDq2EMzRNcy1vSUxtcEk/view

Cutting the Cord: a Robust Wireless Facilities Network for Data Centers

Today’s network control and management traffic are limited by
their reliance on existing data networks. Fate sharing in this context
is highly undesirable, since control traffic has very different availability
and traffic delivery requirements. In this paper, we explore
the feasibility of building a dedicated wireless facilities network for
data centers. We propose Angora, a low-latency facilities network
using low-cost, 60GHz beamforming radios that provides robust
paths decoupled from the wired network, and flexibility to adapt to
workloads and network dynamics. We describe our solutions to address
challenges in link coordination, link interference and network
failures. Our testbed measurements and simulation results show
that Angora enables large number of low-latency control paths to
run concurrently, while providing low latency end-to-end message
delivery with high tolerance for radio and rack failures.

Source: https://static.googleusercontent.com/media/research.google.com/en//pubs/archive/43860.pdf

Flexible Network Bandwidth and Latency Provisioning in the Datacenter

Abstract
Predictably sharing the network is critical to achieving
high utilization in the datacenter. Past work has focussed
on providing bandwidth to endpoints, but often
we want to allocate resources among multi-node services.
In this paper, we present Parley, which provides
service-centric minimum bandwidth guarantees, which
can be composed hierarchically. Parley also supports
service-centric weighted sharing of bandwidth in excess
of these guarantees. Further, we show how to configure
these policies so services can get low latencies even at
high network load. We evaluate Parley on a multi-tiered
oversubscribed network connecting 90 machines, each
with a 10Gb/s network interface, and demonstrate that
Parley is able to meet its goals.

Source: https://static.googleusercontent.com/media/research.google.com/en//pubs/archive/43871.pdf

Trumpet: Timely and Precise Triggers in Data Centers

As data centers grow larger and strive to provide tight performance
and availability SLAs, their monitoring infrastructure
must move from passive systems that provide aggregated
inputs to human operators, to active systems that enable programmed
control. In this paper, we propose Trumpet, an
event monitoring system that leverages CPU resources and
end-host programmability, to monitor every packet and report
events at millisecond timescales. Trumpet users can express
many network-wide events, and the system efficiently detects
these events using triggers at end-hosts. Using careful design,
Trumpet can evaluate triggers by inspecting every packet at
full line rate even on future generations of NICs, scale to
thousands of triggers per end-host while bounding packet
processing delay to a few microseconds, and report events
to a controller within 10 milliseconds, even in the presence
of attacks. We demonstrate these properties using an implementation
of Trumpet, and also show that it allows operators
to describe new network events such as detecting correlated
bursts and loss, identifying the root cause of transient congestion,
and detecting short-term anomalies at the scale of a data
center tenant.

Source: http://www.cs.yale.edu/homes/yu-minlan/writeup/sigcomm16.pdf